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Winch Configurations and Information

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  Typical Rigging Layouts for Lifting and Hoisting Applications

Diagram showing the typical layout of a floor mounted winch configured for lifting with an overhead sheave.

Floor Mounted - Lifting with Overhead Sheave

  • Wire rope passes through overhead sheave to load.
  • Brake Motor provides load control for lifting.
  • Winch is easily accessible for maintenance and operation.
Diagram showing the typical layout of a floor mounted winch configured for lifting with a two-part line.

Floor Mounted - Lifting with 2-Part Line

  • 2-part line decreases load capacity at the winch.
  • Brake Motor provides load control for lifting.
  • Winch is easily accessible for maintenance and operation.
Diagram showing the typical layout of a floor mounted winch configured for lifting a hinged load.

Floor Mounted - Lifting Hinged Load

  • Wire rope passes through overhead sheave to load.
  • Brake Motor provides load control for lifting.
  • Winch is easily accessible for maintenance and operation.
Diagram showing the typical layout of a base mounted winch configured for positioning a radial stacker.

Base Mounted - Positioning Radial Stacker

  • Multi-part rigging decreases load capacity at the winch.
  • Brake Motor provides load control for lifting.
  • Winch is easily accessible for maintenance and operation.

Diagram showing the typical layout of a wall mounted winch configured for lifting with an overhead sheave.

Wall Mounted - Lifting with Overhead Sheave

  • Wire rope passes through overhead sheave to load.
  • Brake Motor provides load control for lifting.
  • Winch is easily modified for wall mounting.
Diagram showing the typical layout of a ceiling mounted winch configured for lifting with an overhead sheave.

Ceiling Mounted - Lifting with Overhead Sheave

  • Wire rope passes through overhead sheave to load.
  • Brake Motor provides load control for lifting.
  • Winch is easily modified for ceiling mounting.
Diagram showing the typical layout of a ceiling mounted winch configured for lifting directly to load.

Ceiling Mounted - Lifting Direct to Load

  • Load must be free to move side to side or be guided in track.
  • Brake Motor provides load control for lifting.
  • Winch is easily modified for ceiling mounting.
Diagram showing the typical layout of a base mounted winch configured for positioning a load-out chute.

Base Mounted - Positioning Load-Out Chute

  • Two winches operate separately to accurately position chute arm.
  • Brake Motor provides load control for lifting.
  • Secondary tie-off secures load when stationary.




  Typical Rigging Layouts for Pulling Applications

Diagram showing the typical layout of a floor mounted winch configured for pulling a cart on wheels.

Floor Mounted - Pulling Cart on Wheels

  • Cart is pulled in one direction, toward winch.
  • Manual clutch allows drum to be disengaged for rapid load hook-up.
  • Cart is guided by tracks or rails to maintain fleet angle.
Diagram showing the typical layout of an in-line mounted winch configured for a single drum closed loop.

Mounted In-Line - Single Drum Closed Loop

  • Cars can be moved in both directions.
  • Both ends of the wire rope are anchored to the same drum.
  • Spring sheave maintains tension in wire rope.
Diagram showing one typical layout of an off-side mounted winch configured for a single drum closed loop.

Mounted Off-Side - Single Drum Closed Loop

  • Cars can be moved in both directions.
  • Both ends of the wire rope are anchored to the same drum.
  • Spring sheaves maintain tension in wire rope.
Diagram showing one typical layout of an off-side mounted winch configured for a single drum closed loop.

Mounted Off-Side - Single Drum Closed Loop

  • Cars can be moved in both directions.
  • Both ends of the wire rope are anchored to the same drum.
  • Spring sheaves maintain tension in wire rope.

Diagram showing the typical layout of an in-line mounted winch configured for pulling rail cars with a single line.

Mounted In-Line - Single Line Pulling Rail Cars

  • Rail cars are pulled toward winch, or rope is passed around sheave to reverse direction.
  • Manual clutch allows drum to be disengaged for rapid load hook-up.
Diagram showing the typical layout of an off-side mounted winch configured for pulling rail cars with a closed loop.

Mounted Off-Side - Closed Loop Pulling Rail Cars

  • Cars can be moved in both directions.
  • Both ends of the wire rope are anchored to the same drum.
  • Spring sheaves maintain tension in wire rope.
Diagram showing one typical layout of two off-side mounted winches configured for positioning a barge.

Mounted Off-Side - Dual Winch Barge Positioning

  • Controls operate each winch individually or both of them together.
  • Brake Motors maintain tension in line to limit drift and deliver quick and accurate positioning.
Diagram showing one typical layout of two off-side mounted winches configured for positioning a barge.

Mounted Off-Side - Dual Winch Barge Positioning

  • Controls operate each winch individually or both of them together.
  • Brake Motors maintain tension in line to limit drift and deliver quick and accurate positioning.




  Rail Car Pulling Calculations

Calculating Line Pull

Line pull must be calculated by accounting for track curvature, track slope, and ambient temperature. Line pull may be roughly estimated from the tables and diagrams on this page, assuming the track is smooth, clean and in good condition and rail car wheels are well lubricated.

We recommend that you have your rail car pulling application carefully reviewed by the factory or a qualified sales person before selecting a winch.


Diagram illustrating the rise over run principle for calculating the percentage of a slope for rail car pulling.

The amount of line pull due to the slope is dependent on the percent of slope, calculated as follows:

Slope (as %) = (rise ÷ run) x 100

Example: 5 ÷ 100 x 100 = 5%

Diagram to assist in calculating the radius and degree of a curve on the path of a rail car being pulled.

Curved sections of track place side forces on the load which must be overcome by the winch. The amount of line pull due to track curvature is dependent upon the sharpness of the curve.


Line Pull Required Based on Temperature Effect (lb/ton)

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Ambient Temp. Below 32 °F Ambient Temp. Above 32 °F
21 18

Line pull shown is for each 2000 lb of total gross load weight.


Line Pull Required Based on Curvature and Slope (lb/ton)

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Track Curvature Track Grade
radius of
curve
degree of
curve
chordal
distance A
percent of rise
0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5%
0 ft 0 in 0 20 40 60 80 100
1146 ft 3-1/2 in 5 25 45 65 85 105
573 ft 10° 6-1//2 in 10 30 50 70 90 110
388 ft 15° 9-3/4 in 15 35 55 75 95 115
288 ft 20° 13 in 20 40 60 80 100 120
231 ft 25° 16-1/2 in 25 45 65 85 105 125
193 ft 30° 20 in 30 50 70 90 110 130
166 ft 35° 23-1/5 in 35 55 75 95 115 135
146 ft 40° 27 in 40 60 80 100 120 140

Line pull shown is for each 2000 lb of total gross load weight.


Example: 2 loaded rail cars weighing 120 gross tons each are pulled 800 ft on a track with a curvature of 5° and a slope of 2%. The track is in good clean condition, wheels are well lubricated, and the ambient temperature is frequently below 32° fahrenheit.

From Table 1: line pull required based on temperature effect = 21 lb/ton (factor 1)

From Table 2: line pull required based on curvature and slope = 45 lb/ton (factor 2)

Total Line Pull Calculation (Running Pull):
(gross weight per car) x (number of cars) x (factor 1 + factor 2) = total line pull
(120 tons) x 2 x (21 lb/ton + 45 lb/ton) = (240 ton) x (66 lb/ton) = 15,840 lb (line pull)
800 ft of travel puts us at mid drum: 4HS16M mid drum running line pull = 11,000 lb
This application would require a 4HS26M (mid drum running line pull = 19,000 lb)





  Engineering Information

Anchor Wraps

The first 3 to 4 wraps of wire rope must remain on the drum at all times to act as anchor wraps and help secure the wire rope to the drum. The length of wire rope used for anchor wraps must be added to the total travel distance to determine the length of the wire rope needed for the application.


Diagram illustrating the relevant lengths in determining the length of wire rope that must be used for anchor wraps on the winch drum.

a = length of anchor wraps in feet
a = ((D + d) x π x N) ÷ 12

D = diameter of drum in inches
d = diameter of wire rope in inches
π = 3.14
N = number of anchor wraps (3 to 4), or if entire first layer N = ((drum width) ÷ d)

L = Total Length of Wire Rope = T + A + a
T = maximum distance load will travel
A = distance between drum and lead sheave, to maintain fleet angle
a = length of anchor wraps in feet


Drum Capacity

Full drum capacity is typically calculated using the formula shown below. This formula is based on the practices of wire rope manufacturers and assumes uniform winding of the wire rope. In actual practice, drum capacities may be 25-30% less than the values given by this formula due to uneven spacing, loose winding, and overlapping.

Drum capacity often determines the winch you select. Most power winches can be equipped with different sizes of wire rope. Larger diameter wire ropes will decrease drum capacity, smaller diameter wire ropes will increase drum capacity.

Diagram showing the relevant measures for determining the capacity of a winch drum.

Drum capacity in feet = (A + D) x A x B x K
K = factor from table below
A = (H - D - 2Y) ÷ 2
Y = clear distance between edge of flange and wire rope (usually 1/2")


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Wire Rope Dia. (in) 1/8 3/16 7/32 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8
K factor 13.6 6.14 4.59 3.29 2.21 1.58 1.19 .925 .741 .607 .428 .308 .239 .191 .152 .127

Two Part Line

In some applications a two part line can be used to effectively increase the size of load the winch can move. A two part line reduces tension in the wire rope, it does not change the weight of the load. All equipment supporting the load, such as sheave blocks, must be rated for the full size of the load.


Diagram illustrating the principle of operation for a two-part line rigging configuration.

As the number of rigging lines increase, the line pull and the speed decrease. Friction in the system also affects performance. As the number of rigging lines increase, friction also increases.


Formulas

H = (P x fpm) ÷ (33000 x E)
P = (HP x 33000 x E) ÷ fpm
fpm = 0.262 x rpm x D
rpm = (3.82 x fpm) ÷ D

hp = horsepower
P = line pull
E = efficiency of gears
fpm = line speed in feet per minute
rpm = drum speed in revolutions per minute
D = diameter of drum in inches at point of line entrance


Fleet Angle

Fleet angle is the angle between the wire rope and an imaginary line extending perpendicular to the drum. The fleet angle varies with the distance between the lead sheave and the drum. The proper fleet angle helps the wire rope to wind evenly onto the drum, and helps to reduce wear to the wire rope, drum, and lead sheave. Too large a fleet angle will cause the wire rope to wind loosely, overlap and possibly jump the flange and cause severe damage to the equipment. A maximum fleet angle of 1-1/2° for smooth drums, and 2° for grooved drums, helps the wire rope wind uniformly.


Diagram showing the relevant measures and terminology for determining the proper distance between a winch and the lead sheave to maintain fleet angle.

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  Distance A (ft)
1.5° Fleet Angle (drum width in inches) x 1.59
2° Fleet Angle (drum width in inches) x 1.19

Recommended Max. Fleet Angle
Smooth drum: 1.5°, Grooved drum: 2°